What Is The Horsemeat March?

One of the best known military expeditions led by General George Crook was none other than the Horsemeat March, taking place in 1876. It was sometimes known as the “Mud March” or “Starvation March” because of the treacherous conditions that weren’t limited to the grueling muddy landscape. In addition, the soldiers under Crook’s command were so poorly fed during the march that they were forced to slaughter their own horses in order to find sustenance.

It didn’t stop them from their mission, which was to hunt down a group of Sioux Native Americans who expected fierce fighting in response to the slaughter at the Battle of Little Bighorn, an embarrassing U.S. defeat. It took a full two months before the Sioux were even followed, and they had made up a lot of ground during that time. When Custer and many of his men were killed, the Native Americans took everything they could find. The U.S. army needed a win, and they were hoping that this march–the Horsemeat March–would lead them to that victory. They couldn’t slow down for a single second, or the hunted Native Americans might escape.

A surgeon of the United States Army, Dr. Bennett A. Clements, took the opportunity during the Horsemeat March and Battle of Slim Buttes to report everything he experienced by writing it all down in the form of a diary. It was through this diary that we know what the conditions were like. General Crook was considered peerless among U.S. generals, but in his quest to track down the Native American Sioux, he lost a huge number of his own troops to disease and starvation, a form of medical malpractice

The march finally ended by September 8th, when troops stumbled upon an Oglala encampment in Slim Buttes, South Dakota.

They didn’t hesitate to strike.

At daybreak on September 9th, about 150 men trampled through the encampment under the command of Captain Anson Mills. This Battle of Slim Buttes resulted in a stunning Native American rout, and resulted in the long-sought American victory.

Crook was able to resupply with an enormous amount of Native American stockpiled dried meat. In addition, about 37 Oglala warriors were either captured and killed.

It wasn’t until later that Crook and his forces finally found the supply train they so desperately needed, but even so, when they found the Lakota they opted to leave them be–the dreaded Horsemeat March had left them far too physically and mentally exhausted to continue the chase.

Where Are The Lakota Indians Now?

After the events of the late 1800’s that were so catastrophic to the dwindling Native American population, things have not gotten much better. The Native Americans were pushed onto reservations, and that’s where many of them have stayed. There, out of sight, many of their rights as human beings have been trampled as well. Even so, the various groups who live in these reservations aren’t always on the same page–and the Lakota Indians are no different.

The Lakota Native Americans are spread across a number of reservations located throughout South Dakota. Many are at the Rosebud Indian Reservation, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the Lower Brule Indian Reservation, the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, and the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Even so, they have also since spread to other state reservations as well. You can find a few living in the Fort Peck Indian Reservation of Montana. In addition, they’re in smaller numbers at Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation and even in Denver.

Not all of the remaining Lakota live here in the U.S. Many found sanctuary in Canada after they were pushed to U.S. reservations during the skirmishes of the 1800s.

In late 2007, a group of activists marched to Washington D.C. in order to state their intention to end all treaties with the U.S. government. Needless to say, no formal withdrawal ever took place. That’s because the activists weren’t part of any Lakota governing force and had no right to speak on behalf of their own tribes. Other issues have developed involving how to govern family relations when it was alleged that Lakota grandparents were having children stolen away.

Right now, the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (or UNPO) hope to continue the fight for rights to Lakota ancestral lands. Even so, it’s hard to imagine they’ll be granted much that they ask for without any real civil rights weight behind them.

The government of the Lakota Native Americans is set apart from the U.S. government, autonomous on its own. They elect their officials to councils set within the reservations and communities where they are mostly populated, and those councils represent the interests of their people.

Even though what happened to the Lakota Indians and other Native American tribes was a tragedy brought about by the U.S. government, and the reparations provided were limited, it should serve as a reminder to future generations to not let this kind of terrible event transpire again.

What Was The Battle of Wolf Mountain?

The Battle of Wolf Mountain was fought with perhaps equal numbers on both sides, but the U.S. army is considered the victor in their engagement with the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne Native American warriors they faced on January 8, 1877, when the facts are presented by most historians. There were few casualties on either side, but after the battle ended the Native Americans who remained would have had little hope of evading capture or death during the winter. They surrendered instead.

Had the campaign against the Native Americans been fought according to traditional standards of war from the century past (according to Albany historians), the engagement may have been avoided altogether. Historically, winter was a time to dig in and resupply. This usually helped reduce the number of dead due to disease, hypothermia or malnourishment in the harsh conditions. General Nelson A. Miles would not apply these same rules of war in his hunting of the Native American forces that remained and so the Great Sioux War finally ended as a result.

After Miles had defeated the forces of Sitting Bull and Ranald S. Mackenzie had won the Dull Knife Fight, the Sioux and Cheyenne were all but routed. At this point it was relatively impossible for the tribes to regroup or reunite in enough force to launch an effective counter-offensive. After these conflicts were lost by the Native Americans, it was simply a mopping up effort on the part of the U.S. army until the inevitable surrender was obtained.

The Battle of Wolf Mountain was an attempt to track down Sioux Chief Crazy Horse and around 500 Native Americans he led. With 436 men under his command, Miles marched along the Tongue River valley until he managed came upon the Native American forces. A series of attacks were launched every other day, starting on January 1, 1877 and continuing through January 7. On that night, a massive snowstorm pounded the area. On January 8, Miles launched a five-hour battle that would end the conflict once and for all, using the snow to his advantage.

The Native Americans were tactically outmatched during the battle. There was three feet of snow on the ground, and two pieces of heavy artillery pounded them from a ridgeline above the field of battle. Their horses were starving and unable to carry the warriors into battle, forcing them to march on foot. Unsurprisingly, their attempts to outmaneuver and outflank the U.S. soldiers proved completely unsuccessful.

For all purposes, though, the U.S. side wasn’t in a position to overwhelm the Native Americans either, and so they didn’t. Eventually, the Native Americans agreed to terms of surrender after being promised they would be treated fairly upon return to Fort Robinson. Crazy Horse led them there in the coming days.

Those that went there were not treated well, in reality, and another massacre would soon play out not far from Fort Robinson after some Native Americans who had gone there managed to escape.

The Battle of Wolf Mountain may not have led to significant loss of life for either side of the military engagement, but it was a strategic loss for the Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne who were already devastated by the Great Sioux War, and an obvious precursor to their surrender at Camp Robinson in May. The historical significance of the conflict hasn’t been forgotten over time, and the site of the battle was part of the National Register of Historic Places for a long time before the Wolf Mountains Battlefield was elevated to a National Historic Landmark in 2008.

Who Was Nelson A. Miles?

Nelson Appleton Miles was born on August 8, 1839 in Westminster, Massachusetts, and would rise to fame as a renowned member of the United States military during the American Civil War, Native American conflicts, and the Spanish-American War. An important event during the Great Sioux War, the Battle of Wolf Mountain, was sometimes called Mile’s Battle on the Tongue River because of his strategic victory on January 8, 1877. That site in time went on to become listed as part of the National Register of Historic Places before it became a National Historic Landmark in 2008.

His military service started when Miles joined the Union Army as a volunteer on September 9, 1861. He quickly rose in the ranks, going on to become a lieutenant and lieutenant colonel before even six months had elapsed. He was also well known as a survivor of terrible injuries sustained during service after he was shot in the neck and abdomen during the chaos of battle at Chancellorsville. He went on to quickly be granted a rank of brigadier general and then major general within five years, although these promotions were due to actions in battle and therefore did not provide extra compensation.

During the Great Sioux War, Miles continued his military service and married as well. In particular, he was a part of the series of raids along the Northern Plains in response to the catastrophic U.S. defeat at the Battle of Little Bighorn. One of the reasons his name became so recognized during these conflicts was his brilliant strategic use of heliographs–movable mirrors designed to send signals using reflected sunlight–along a 140 mile corridor between Fort Custer and Fort Keogh.

After the Great Sioux War ended, conflicts with Native Americans continued into the next decade. Miles was put in command of troops tracking Geronimo in 1886, replacing the famed General George Crook. He perhaps mistakenly put too much trust in his own men, replacing knowledgeable Apache scouts used by Crook with white soldiers instead. He ultimately failed to find Geronimo after a brutal 3,000 mile-long march. Instead, First Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood had the honor of negotiating the surrender of the Apache chief–or, he would have. Miles stole the honor for himself and quietly transferred Gatewood elsewhere.

Miles served up to the end of Native American conflicts, which culminated at Wounded Knee when 300 Sioux were slaughtered–women and children among them. Even though he thought that in general Native Americans should submit to the authority of the United States, he believed the survivors of Wounded Knee did indeed have a right to compensation, and urged the government to provide it after his retirement.

In 1925, he passed away after suffering a heart attack. He was 85 at the time, and in the company of his grandchildren.

The man hasn’t been forgotten with time, either. Miles City, Alabama was named after his accomplishments in life. Although we’re not entirely certain of the fact, steamship General Miles is thought to be named after him as well. There are streets, landmarks, and other places named for him. Because of his performance during the Native American conflicts, he has also been portrayed in film and cinema. Whether any of this notoriety is actually deserved, of course, is up for debate.

What Was The Fort Robinson Massacre?

After a series of crushing defeats during the Great Sioux War, the Northern Cheyenne were forced to give up more and more territory in the years thereafter. Although the U.S. demanded most of them relocate to the Darlington Agency of the Southern Cheyenne Reservation, many could not tolerate the conditions of that relocation and so they fled back home, to the north. This September 1878 migration was the precursor to the Fort Robinson Massacre, a series of terrible events that would transpire during the coming winter months.

A number of Cheyenne were caught during this migration and 150 were sent to Fort Robinson in Nebraska.

The U.S. escalated its poor treatment of the Cheyenne that remained in the northern region in an effort to push them back south. They essentially imprisoned a large number without food or heat, the conditions that led them to attempt escape in January. In typical U.S. form, the Cheyenne were tracked by the army so they could be recaptured or killed. 65 Cheyenne Native Americans were caught and returned to Fort Robinson, while most of the remaining 32 were slaughtered by a much greater force of 150 men.

If that sounds bad, then know that the reality was even worse.

Those 32 Cheyenne were a group of 18 men and 14 women and children. On January 22, 1879, they were trapped among the Hat Creek Bluffs, 35 miles away from their escape at Fort Robinson. After they were surrounded, they decided to entrench themselves in an effort to survive the coming attack. They chose a dry creek bed which would thereafter be named “The Pit” by those who studied the battle.

Although the Cheyenne were apparently given the opportunity to surrender themselves, they chose instead to fight. They fired upon the U.S. soldiers who came at them from all directions, managing to kill several. All the Cheyenne warriors were casualties of the skirmish, while four women and two children also fell victim to the U.S. rush. Eight Cheyenne survived by hiding amongst the dead, but were soon captured.

Of all those who had fled Fort Robinson, only about 10 survived made their way to the Sioux reservation. Up to 64 wound up dead, 23 wounded, and dozens of others back in the hands of the U.S. military.

After the events at the Pit, General George Crook began an investigation into the Fort Robinson Massacre. Command of the garrison at Fort Robinson shifted to Major Andrew W. Evans. Eventually, the remaining prisoners were released so they could make the journey to a Montana reservation. The investigation did little to ease the suffering that had been endured over the long winter months by the Cheyenne.

Many of those who survived the ordeal were charged with murder, and the U.S. government later maintained that it was not liable for the loss of life incurred by the Native Americans. It wasn’t until 1994 that members of the Northern Cheyenne tribe were able to obtain the remains of those who died during the Fort Robinson Massacre. Today, they are now buried at the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana.

You might say remember the Alamo in Texas, and I say remember Fort Robinson!

What Was The Dull Knife Fight in Wyoming Territory?

Although the Great Sioux War began and ended as a series of skirmishes, the U.S. public was greatly attentive toward those battles, especially after the seemingly inconceivable disaster and defeat that was the Battle of Little Bighorn. After Custer and hundreds of his men were slaughtered, the people of the U.S. couldn’t get enough of the news related to the war, and everyone was on the lookout for a big U.S. victory.

As it turned out, the Battle of Slim Buttes would set the stage for a quick Sioux and Cheyenne rout, and the Dull Knife Fight would quickly end the war that had long been waged in the Black Hills region of South Dakota–a war that began with an obviously illegal expedition embarked upon by Custer after he was commissioned to do so by the U.S. army. It ended what were short-lived peace treaties and resulted in at least another decade of violence.

Slim Buttes allowed the U.S. to find its footing with the slaughter of the men, women and children of the Sioux, Minneconjou, Cheyenne, and Brules Native Americans. Not long after, on November 25, 1876, Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, a rising star in the U.S. military after his service in the Civil War and earlier conflicts with the Native Americans, and the fourth cavalry under his command set upon yet another Native American village in what was to be known as the Dull Knife Fight.

This was the battle that would decimate any chance the Northern Cheyenne had of holding the U.S. military at bay for an extended period of time.

Mackenzie left Camp Robinson, Nebraska with a 1,000 men spread across eleven companies under his command. Complementing that force was a group of 400 Native American scouts who knew the basic lay of the land. A number of tribes were among them: Pawnee, Bannocks, Sioux, Shoshone, Arapaho, and Cheyenne.

While at first glance one might be surprised to notice Sioux and Cheyenne aiding the war effort against their own people, it is important to acknowledge that these tribes were greatly divided between those who acknowledged defeat and sought only peace, and those who wished to continue to fight back to keep their traditions and way of life intact after decades of being pushed farther and farther back.

When the force came upon the Cheyenne Dull Knife camp, it was in the midst of a celebration. That didn’t stop Mackenzie. At dawn on November 25, his force set upon the village and drove out the inhabitants.

As far as battles go, it was not a particularly gruesome one. On the U.S. side, only seven were confirmed dead. The Cheyenne lost at least forty, and many more were wounded. 200 lodges were torched, and Mackenzie’s forces recovered more U.S. property taken after the Battle of Little Bighorn.

More importantly, the battle left hundreds of Cheyenne Native Americans without clothing, food, or practical shelter as they were pushed north just before the onset of winter. This virtually guaranteed the end of any effective Cheyenne resistance, and propelled the sense of pride felt by the U.S. military and public.

Red Cloud’s War

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was a piece of legislation signed by representatives of several different Native American tribes in the Midwest and overseen by the lawyers of the United States government. Its purpose was to ensure a lasting peace between the disputing Native American nations as well as ensure safe passage for European American pioneers along the Oregon Trail into Montana, and it allowed the United States to build roads, forts and trading posts in Native American territory in exchange for annual recompense in the amount of $50,000 each year over the course of 50 years.

Due to a consistent unrest among Native American tribes, wars and conflicts shifted the positions and land claims of various peoples in the American Midwest. Apart from providing a dramatic theater for the Native American peoples themselves, it also made for a harrowing passageway by which European Americans would travel westward due to the California Gold Rush of 1848. In response to avoiding possible conflict between the United States and the Native American peoples, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was ratified to settle several land claims with many of the tribes agreeing to terms.

However, the treaty was broken almost immediately. Lakota and Cheyenne tribes attacked the Crow tribe over the course of the next two years. American emigrants settled Native American territory in the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush of 1858, causing further conflict as well as a strain of natural resources. Many tribes were displaced, most notably by the Lakota: the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara tribes all were driven out of treaty-shared territory by 1862. Beyond all the intertribal fighting, the United States did little to intervene in any of the conflict, nor did they ever honor many their pledges of the money that was promised to the Native American people.

One of the conflicts that arose involved Lakota expansion while hunting for natural resources near the Powder River area in Crow territory as was dictated by the treaty. Hostilities waged between the Crow and the Lakota until the Crow were eventually displaced from their lands and the Lakota assumed control of Powder River in 1859.

Four years later, European Americans had blazed the Bozeman Trail as a shortcut from Fort Laramie to the gold fields of Montana. This trail cut through territory belonging to Cheyenne, Arapaho and Lakota, according to the Treaty of 1851. The emigration through the Bozeman Trail as well as the consistent competition of diminishing resources sparked what would become known as Red Cloud’s War, named so after an Oglala Lakota chief allied with both Arapaho and Cheyenne in an effort to drive the Europeans out.

Consisting mostly of skirmishes on US forts along the Powder River, Red Cloud’s War waged from 1866 to 1868 with the Lakota effectively claiming victory as well as the lands once appropriated to the Crow in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. In 1868, a second treaty was ratified that established the Great Sioux Reservation and made official the inclusion of the western Powder River and Black Hills as Lakota lands, permanently displacing the Crow.
However, this peace would be short-lived, as the United States would impede on Sioux lands less than 10 years later in the prospect for gold within the Black Hills. The Lakota, along with their established allies in the Cheyenne and Arapaho, would see war with the United States military again by 1876 in the Great Sioux War, only this time with less than favorable results.

The Agreement of 1877

As a result of the Great Sioux War (also known as the Black Hills War), the United States government enforced legislation upon the defeated Lakota Sioux known as the Agreement of 1877. On the surface, this legislation was a cessation of the Black Hills territory from Lakota control into United States occupation following the Lakota’s ceasing of hostilities at the end of the Great Sioux War. It also relocated the Lakota from the Black Hills into predesignated reservations and modified the borders of Native American land that had been established by the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.

Preceding this act, the United States and the Lakota Sioux had come to terms in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 that had originally prohibited American activity in the Black Hills as it was considered sacred land by the Lakota (as well as other tribes such as the Cheyenne). Intrusion into the Black Hills had instigated aggression and hostilities between the Lakota and American traders and debtor protectors, spurring the Federal government to action. While a peace had been struck, much speculation had centered around the Black Hills themselves as holding stores of gold within the earth. American prospectors and minors, despite Federal legislation outlawing it, continued to trespass in the Black Hills in search of this gold, further inciting Lakota to retaliate. This aggressive act, once met with peaceful legislation, now caused the United States to resort to arranging an expeditionary force led by General Custer in 1874 to consider the possibility of a fort in order to protect American citizens.

During the expedition, the rumors of gold were confirmed and the hostilities eventually led to a war between the tribes of the Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho against the United States military. The ensuing conflict ended with the Lakota defeat and cessation of the Black Hills. Many Lakota referred to this legislation as a “sell or starve” amendment to the Indian Appropriations Act of 1876, as it allowed the United States to blockade supply rations to the Lakota until they ceased all hostilities and formally ceded the Black Hills.

Despite the formality of the Agreement of 1877 that supposedly ratified the Black Hills annexation to the United States, there is much controversy that surrounds the transfer of such land even up to the present day. While the legislation itself apparently makes note that the Black Hills were purchased and paid for by the United States, there is no evidence of such a transaction actually taking place. In fact, the Lakota Sioux of the present day make note that they consistently refuse to accept payment for land they consider sacred, despite the United States Supreme Court awarding upwards of $106 million to the Sioux nation in 1980 as recompense for the United States effectively violating the fifth amendment in their seizure of the Black Hills. Many members of the Sioux nation believe that accepting such payment even now would only finalize the formality that attempted to be set in motion in 1877, and that the Black Hills would be properly sold to the United States, along with the Sioux culture and identity.

The Black Hills Mountain Range

The Black Hills are a small range of mountains in the midwestern portion of the United States, located in the southwestern part of South Dakota and crossing the state border into the northeastern part of Wyoming. To some, this land goes by another name: the Paha Sapa, or “heart of everything that is.” Allegedly settled as far back as 1500 AD by the Arikara, these hills have been the center of numerous conflicts between various Native American tribes as well as European immigrants as recently as the modern day.

The most significant conflict arose after the land was claimed by the Lakota Sioux, a band of warrior tribes that had migrated west from modern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Winning the Black Hills from the Cheyenne in 1776, the Lakota quickly came to view the Black Hills as a heavily influential part of their spiritual heritage due to the abundance which the land had provided to the Native Americans as a whole.

After the Louisiana Purchase (where we had most of the East cost to the Mississippi River but no Florida) took place in 1803 between the United States and France, famed explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were sent to explore the uncharted territory. Their presence as well as the westward pioneering of American trappers and traders began an unwelcome trend of encroaching upon sacred Native American land. The Lakota became more aggressive as a result, and relations with American settlers declined. The Lakota even engaged in raids of nearby settlements that threatened their sacred land.

The hostilities between Lakota Sioux and Americans eventually reached a point that required Federal intervention. In 1868, after the American Civil War had concluded, the United States attempted to establish peaceful relations with the Lakota once again in the form of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 (not to be confused with the treaty of 1851 by the same name). This treaty established the Great Sioux Reservation and ensured all lands between the Missouri River and the Big Horn Mountains would forever remain under Sioux occupation and prohibit American expansion or exploration, including the Black Hills. However, persistent prospectors and miners continued to intrude upon Lakota land and hostilities continued. As a result of this aggression, the United States military appointed General George Armstrong Custer to lead an expedition into the Black Hills in 1874 and explore the possibility of establishing an American military presence with a fort.

During this expedition, American prospectors confirmed the presence of gold in the Black Hills. This discovery not only spurred thousands of miners to trespass upon Sioux land, but also the Lakota to conflict with the American military. This conflict, the last major Great Plains conflict, would later come to be known as the Black Hills War and would eventually lead to the Lakota’s defeat and forced relocation from the Black Hills to other reservations. Adding and enforcing what many Sioux called “sell or starve” to the Indian Appropriations Act of 1876 (due to the fact that the United States cut off all food supplies until the Sioux ceded control of the Black Hills), the Agreement of 1877 permanently claimed the Black Hills as United States territory and reestablished reservation borders that were originally set in the Fort Laramie Treaty only nine years prior. Americans were now free to traverse and trade in the Black Hills as they pleased.

Participants of the Great Sioux War

Between 1876 and 1877, the United States waged war with a portion of the Native American population known as the Sioux, in a conflict aptly named the Great Sioux War. Some may also know it as the Black Hills War, given the precedence for conflict involved the claim over the Black Hills in South Dakota and Wyoming. Despite the name, however, the Great Sioux War also included other Native American tribes such as the Cheyenne and the Arapaho as well as the various factions within the Lakota Sioux tribe itself, most predominantly the Oglala and Hunkpapa.

Despite the unity of common purpose in the Great Sioux War, many of the tribes who participated wavered between friendly allies and bitter rivals before the conflict took place. In fact, the Lakota Sioux had crossed the Missouri River after a smallpox epidemic and claimed the Black Hills from the Cheyenne in 1776, several years after the Cheyenne had introduced horses into Lakota society.

Originally hailing from the Great Lakes region, the Arapaho tribes ventured southward from present-day Minnesota and Manitoba and established a strong presence in the Midwest from Montana and Wyoming into the western regions of Oklahoma and Kansas. By 1811, they had allied themselves with the Cheyenne to expand their hunting territories, and by 1826 the alliance had come to include Lakota Sioux in an effort to repel Kiowa and Comanche forces from the south. The Arapaho managed peaceful relations with the Cheyenne and the Lakota, and they even dealt frequently with immigrant trading posts hosted by European Americans up until conflict arose with the United States. Expanding in all directions, the Arapaho eventually came to peaceful relations with the Comanche as well, the very tribe they once fought to stop from entering their lands, and even grew so close that a portion of the population assimilated with them, adopting the Comanche language and even coming to be known as their own individual Comanche tribe in the Texas Panhandle.

The Cheyenne and the Lakota have the more storied past, venturing between war allies and bitter enemies at different points in time. Hailing from similar lands in the Great Lakes region, the Cheyenne had ventured westward into present-day Minnesota and North Dakota. While crossing the Missouri River, they associated with the Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara and eventually Lakota, the latter to whom they introduced horses. However, due to rising conflict between Lakota and another tribe known as Ojibwe, the Cheyenne were forced to continue migrating westward, eventually entering into conflict with the Kiowa as a result. The warring Lakota eventually crossed the Missouri River and overtook the Cheyenne, claiming their territory in the Black Hills. Forced to continue west and south, the Cheyenne eventually came into an alliance with the Arapaho as well as the opportunity to expand upon their own territory, territory that would encompass southern Montana through Wyoming and Colorado, into the western reaches of Nebraska and Kansas.

Despite past territorial disputes between the Lakota and the Cheyenne, however, they would find a common enemy in the United States military with the advent of the Great Sioux War in an effort to keep American prospectors and traders from trespassing into the Black Hills, considered sacred land by both the Cheyenne and Lakota, in search of the promise of gold. Still strongly allied with the Cheyenne, the Arapaho joined in their effort to defend the Black Hills as well in the conflict that would later be known as the Great Sioux War.