Category Archives: United States

The Standing Rock Agency: Fort Laramie To Dakota Access

When environmentalists wanted to take a stand in the Dakotas, they had no better representative than the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.

It has always taken a stand and still does to this day, in national headlines. The Sioux have always been a very proud people, and their veterans fight hard for all they believe in and especially the lands of their ancestors.

The Standing Rock Reservation

The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is based on the Standing Rock Reservation, which is one part of six Sioux reservations in the northern Great Plains. The original Great Sioux Reservation was created by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868, which gave specific land boundaries for the Sioux Indians. This included the Black Hills area of South Dakota and the Missouri River, both of which were deemed vital and sacred topographical assets for the Sioux people.

The Standing Rock Reservation as it’s known now was established by Congress in 1889, when the Great Sioux reservation was split six ways, and Standing Rock is one of the pie pieces.

The Standing Rock Agency

As a result of the 1868 Fort Laramie treaty, the U.S. government established the Grand River Agency, to be based in Grand River, South Dakota, and serve as the field office for the fledgling Bureau of Indian Affairs within the U.S. Department of the Interior.

The agency was moved to Fort Yates, North Dakota in 1873 and became known as the Standing Rock Agency and has served the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe ever since the reservation was established in 1889. The Agency serves as liaison between the federal government and the Standing Rock Sioux, providing health, government, and other services to the people living on the reservation. These services include real estate, probate and estate, wildland and structural fire management, and social services including tribal enrollment.

Standing Rock in the News

The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the Standing Rock Agency were in the headlines a lot over the last couple years, as hundreds and thousands of protestors invaded the Standing Rock Reservation to protest the building of the Dakota Access Pipeline.

The pipeline was to be built across Standing Rock land, and the Standing Rock Agency originally worked with the Sioux tribe to secure rights on behalf of the developer of the pipeline, and a deal was struck after there were assurances that the pipeline would not traverse over sacred lands (such as gravesites) and would not generate a significant environmental impact on the land.

However, despite the deal, environmentalists came to the area to protest the pipeline on “behalf” of the Standing Rock Tribe, which was in the headlines.  There was reportedly very little participation in protests by members of the Standing Rock Tribe, but with recent developments of the Dakota Access Pipeline already spilling nearly 100 gallons of oil on reservation land, protests may just get even more animated.

Needless to say, the battle is not over. But Standing Rock will continue to stand up and fight for its people and its land. History bears it out, and there is no reason to think that it will change.

The Black Hills Gold Rush: Adding Insult To Injury

Let’s just say that after the first Thanksgiving, relations between European whites and American Indians were not always so congenial. And as “Manifest Destiny” was taking hold across the Great Plains and the West, things progressively got worse, until there was an olive branch. Only to see that get snapped in two.

The Treaty of Fort Laramie

For a couple of decades in the middle of the 19th century, settlers coming from the burgeoning United States into frontier areas of the West encountered resistance from American Indians who had claimed land in the West as its own and even as sacred ground. A number of skirmishes and small battles broke out across the West, and things finally got to a point that the U.S. government, trying to protect its people, entered into an agreement with local tribes of the Sioux and Cheyenne called the Treaty of Fort Laramie that was supposed to bring some peace. The settlers were to leave the prized Indiana lands alone, and the Indians would not attack settlers without provocation.


In 1874, there were rumors floating around about a key precious metal being found in the Daokta Territory. The same mineral that led to California statehood 25 years earlier, was rumored to be found among the Black Hills in the territory. At first, it was just rumor or very small discoveries, but rumors grew like a conflagration and within weeks thousands of people from the East raveled to the Black Hills area to try to find their future. There were some finds in the area, but two men paired up and found a motherlode along a river, and that vein of gold produced for more than a century.

However, the Black Hills were much like the Yellowstone area of Montana – it is considered sacred and vitally important land for the Sioux and Cheyenne Indian peoples. The settlers and prospsectors who came to the rea were not as aware of the “boundaries” of Indian lands nor of the Treaty of Fort Laramie, so they poured into the area. That further angered the Indians, and by 1875 some settlements were being attacked due to their “invasion” of the land.

Enough is Enough

At the start of the rush, a military detachment was sent to the Dakota Territory to assess the gold mining opportunities and the yield of gold. Upon this work, the government gave the local tribes a deadline of January 31, 1876, to move into reservation land in the Dakota Territory or the government would force them. The government began forcible movement of the Indians off their ancestral lands to make room for the gold-rush settlers, but by the fall of 1876, the Indians were not going to go quietly – having already been “invaded” by the Northern Pacific Railroad earlier in the decade – and an 18-month campaign called the Great Sioux War went on, involving at least 10 major battles between military and Indian forces. And yes, Custer’s Last Stand at the Little Big Horn River effectively ended the conflict.

Who Was Ranald S. Mackenzie And What Was His Part in The Great Sioux War?

Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, sometimes known as Bad Hand or No-Finger Chief depending on which one of the elders you asked, would survive the Civil War as part of the Union Army and go on to serve during the Great Sioux War, where his career flourished. Although his command during these wars was noteworthy for a number of reasons, he temporarily held control over the 41st, a regiment of African-American soldiers. Many officers during this time veered away from such assignments, but Mackenzie seemed to work well with the men.

On November 25, 1876, soon after the U.S. victory against a couple hundred Sioux, Cheyenne, Minneconjou, and Brules (mostly women and children) at the Battle of Slim Buttes, Colonel Mackenzie and the fourth cavalry under his command were able to annihilate another village in the Dull Knife Fight. While the Battle of Slim Buttes was the beginning of the end of the war, the Dull Knife Fight crushed the Northern Cheyenne tribe’s battle capability in the future.

The Dull Knife Fight ended the war in the Black Hills, and quashed U.S. fear that had arisen from the catastrophe at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Before his success during the Great Sioux War, he served in a number of notable Civil War conflicts: Antietam, Second Bull Run, Gettysburg, Petersburg, Fort Stevens, Cedar Creek, Five Forks, and Appomattox Courthouse among them. During these campaigns he was injured at least six times in the line of duty, but survived to see the end of the war and the northern victory.

This service granted him the praise of Ulysses S. Grant, who wrote that Mackenzie was “the most promising young officer in the army.” This praise was not shared by the men he led into battle, who knew him as the “Perpetual Punisher.” They thought him cold and callous, but he was still successful leading them. He was well-known for his obvious ability to lead in combat.

From the period that began with the end of the Civil War until he left military service altogether, he mostly participated in the Indian Wars, of which the Great Sioux War was a part, and was injured at least once more in service.

Because of his victory at the Dull Knife Fight, he was granted a series of promotions that led to a general sense of good fortune in life. He first became commander of District of New Mexico, then brigadier general at the Department of Texas. It was there he bought a ranch and married. Unfortunately, the good luck ended in an unfortunate accident that was eventually blamed for Mackenzie’s sudden mental instability that led to an early and forced retirement from the U.S. army.

He died only five years later, the event going somewhat unnoticed at the time. It wasn’t until years and decades later that his name resurfaced and his long service in the military was acknowledged and studied at length by Ernest Wallace, a Texas historian, in 1964.

You can even watch an entire televsion show about him here:

Who Was Crazy Horse And What Did He Do?

One of the most recognizable names when people talk about American Indians is an individual by the name of Crazy Horse. He was actually a leader in a tribe called the Oglala Lakota. He is known for being very diverse in his actions, especially when it came to opposing the federal government of the United States. He was a very brave individual that later surrendered to the Americans and was subdued by a wound caused by a bayonet. Here is a little overview of what Crazy Horse actually did during his life and why he is so famous.

Early Life Of Crazy Horse

Crazy Horse was born in the 1800s. There is some debate on that exact date. Many people agree that it was around 1842. A medicine man, which is a spiritual leader within tribes of the American Indians, played a role in his famous name. Born during a year where 100 horses were stolen, he was designated with this name. However, his birth name was Cha-O-Ha, which simply means he who is amidst the trees.

The Family Of Crazy Horse

His father was also called Crazy Horse, a name that he gave to his son. His father changed his name to a word that means worm. His mother died early when he was just four years of age. Her name was Rattling Blanket Woman. His relationship with his father was strong, and they decided to go on a vision quest to discover what he was to do with his life.

The Visions Of Crazy Horse

What is well-known in the culture of American Indians is that they were often guided by their visions. Crazy Horse lived with his younger brother at a Lakota camp where American soldiers came in looking for a thief and were subsequently slaughtered. Crazy Horse, also called Curly by his mother, went on a vision quest with his father, going all the way to Sylvan Lake in South Dakota. This is something that was discussed by his cousin Black Elk who was also known for his visions. He went on a vision quest where he first went south, a reference to where the departed souls and up after death. In the vision, he was shown how to do his warpaint, mimicking a lightning bolt on the left side of his face that his father also wore. The vision was interpreted to show that he would become a great warrior, and that is actually what he became, a protector of his people.

Last Sun Dance Of 1877

This is an event that is still highly regarded in Lakota history. It was a dance that was held in honor of Crazy Horse. He had played a vital role in the victory of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Although he was the honored guest, he did not participate in the festivities. There were cousins that attended who actually sacrificed flesh and blood in his name. However, despite all of this, it led to deep suspicions about Crazy Horse from the American perspective which led to his eventual demise.

At the end of his life, he formally surrendered to Lieut. Clark at Fort Robinson in Nebraska. This subsequently led to misinterpretations of words that he had said which led them to believe that he still wanted to kill the Americans. There was a struggle at one point where he was stabbed by a bayonet, and despite the efforts of an assistant post surgeon, he died from the wounds. However, he left behind a legacy and legend that still lives today in the stories that are told about Crazy Horse.

For more information about Crazy Horse, check out this video:


Who Was George Armstrong Custer?

There is an individual in American history that is well-known by the name of General George Armstrong Custer. He is well known for one of the most famous battles in history between Americans and American Indians called the Battle of Little Bighorn. Although he did participate in the American Civil War, he is most well-known for his participation in the American Indian Wars. Here is a quick overview of the life of George Armstrong Custer, and the day of his famous death known as “Custer’s Last Stand.”

Early Life Of George Armstrong Custer

George Armstrong Custer was born in 1839. He was raised in the states of Ohio and Michigan. Although he was allowed into West Point back in 1857, when he graduated he was the last in his class. However, it was due to the outbreak of the Civil War that he found his calling. He developed a very strong reputation during this war. He was engaged in battle at First Battle of Bull Run, and he became a very successful Calgary commander. And only the age of 23, he became a Brig. Gen. right before the Battle of Gettysburg. However, it was his occupation in the battlefield during the American Indian Wars that cemented his role in American history.

General Custer And The American Indian Wars

After going back to the rank of captain, and subsequently appointed to Lieut. Col., he fought in the American Indian Wars starting in 1867. Nine years later in 1876, he led the seventh Cavalry Regiment into Montana where he would fights, and also died, in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. It is there that he and his brothers were killed in an epic battle with a coalition of different Native Americans. It is forever known as Custer’s Last Stand, and despite all of his success in the Civil War, this is what he will forever be known for in history.

Custer’s Last Stand

The reason that this battle is so well remembered is because of how decisive it was. Fighting against American Indians, they were surrounded, and ultimately all of the soldiers were killed. The Indians worked strategically, killing soldiers, taking their guns, and continuing to fire at the troopers that remained. Slowly the American gunfire diminished, and the gunfire from the American Indians grew more intense until not a single man was left standing.

Conflicting Stories Regarding Custer’s Last Stand

When the bodies were examined, aside from the wounds that led to mutilation, there was a definitive shot to the left temple and also right below the heart. There was also some confusion as to where his body was found. Some stated that he was also knocked from his horse, and that led to his demise, but either way this was certainly his last battle. Although none of the American Indians that were interviewed actually knew that this was the famous General Custer, what they are remembered for is their ability to effectively shut down an entire American Cavalry unit. After observing the body.

Despite having a stellar reputation as a leader in the American Civil War, it was his interaction in the American Indian Wars that has made him so famous. Although he is famous for all of the wrong reasons, actually losing his battle, it was the decisiveness of that battle which also contributed to his notoriety. There were many other battles that were fought during this time, yet there is none that is more well-known than this one. George Armstrong Custer will forever be known as the individual that represents what all of the American history refer to as Custer’s Last Stand.

The History of The Great Sioux War

The Great Sioux War of 1876 is also known to many historians as the Black Hill  War. It was a series of both negotiations and battles that collectively took place in 1876 and 1877. These events transpired between the government of the United States and the Northern Cheyenne and Lakota Sioux.

The primary cause of the dispute stemmed from the United States government desiring ownership over the Black Hills. There had been a discovery of gold there, and settlers were encroaching into what were at the time Native American lands. The Cheyenne and Sioux refused to cede their ownership of their lands to the United States.

Traditional interpretation of the events by many historians and United States military scholars put an emphasis on the Lakota as a central player in this story, particularly given the numbers they had involved. However, some of the Native American populace hold the belief that the United States campaign was targeted at the Cheyenne.

Many skirmishes and battles took place during this war. The Battle of the Little Bighorn was perhaps the most famous, alternatively known popularly as “Custer’s Last Stand,” as it is easily the most storied of multiple encounters between Plains Indians and the United States army. Even though Indian forces won that particular incident, the United States was able to capitalize on its access to national resources.

The Battle of the Little Bighorn was a decided loss, and it was preceded by the Battle of the Rosebud. That early event is widely considered to be the first notable violence of the war; it was at least a tactical draw, but perhaps a strategic victory for the Indians. Both were followed by the Battle of Slim Buttes, which was a minor victory. Following the mixed results, the Army changed tactics and started bringing in many more troops and commanding officers, one of whom wound up commanding the whole Army during the United States-Spanish War.

The Indians involved were eventually forced into surrender. This happened mainly due to attacks that destroyed their property and encampments and caused great injury to their soldiers. Two presidents were in office during the Great Sioux War. The first was Ulysses S. Grant, and the second was Rutherford B. Hayes. On February 28, 1877, the Agreement of 1877 was formally enacted. It established permanent Indian reservations and annexed Sioux lands.

Military campaigns were not the only efforts to bring a resolution to the conflict. After Custer fell, Congress passed a ‘sell or starve’ rider that terminated Sioux rations until they ceased hostilities and gave the Black Hills to America. Also, a delegation including Northern Cheyenne and Oglala men went to various encampments in January of 1877 to see if any bands were interested in surrendering. Other Indian agencies sent out similar peace delegations in the following February, March, and April.

The combination of military campaigns and intense diplomacy yielded effective results. Starting in the early spring months of 1877, many of the northern bands started to surrender en masse. This was not without incident, though. The famous Oglala leader known as Crazy Horse was feared by the Army as someone who might break away. An attempt to arrest him lead to a struggle that ended in his death. Also, some bands simply fled into Canada. However, buffalo depletion and tensions with native tribes already in Canada lead most of these bands to return and surrender in the early 1880s.

The Great Sioux War of 1876-77 is often contrasted with the previous Red Cloud’s War of roughly ten years earlier. In that conflict, the leaders of the Lakota were heavily supported by their various bands in terms of fighting. However, between the two wars, over half of the Lakota population had chosen to settle at various Indian agencies. They did this to gain subsistence and rations, and these bands neither supported nor participated in the Great Sioux War.

For more information on The Great Sioux War and other Sioux wars, check out this video:

What Is The Sun Dance Gathering Of The Native Americans?

The Sun Dance is a religious ceremony practiced by Indian tribes that lived in the so-called Great Plains of the United States and Canada, that is, from the grassland that spans the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, and from Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada through Texas in the United States.

For the Great Plains Indians, the Sun Dance ceremony is the most important religious event of the year and serves as an occasion for different groups to gather to celebrate their central beliefs about the Universe and the supernatural. Plans are made one year in advance, and the event is held either in late spring or early summer when herds of buffalo gather in the Great Plains after winter. In other words, it is held during the time when large groups of people have access to plentiful sources of food.

During the ceremony, a select group of men dancers for several days around a central pole for days, only stopping for short breaks. It is a test of physical endurance that the dancers are willing to make for the sake of their tribe. Aside from fasting for a few days during the dance, the dancers are fastened to the central pole through a piercing on their chests.

It is said that one of the reasons why the US and Canadian governments banned the Sun Dance was because of the piercing, which settlers from Europe found offensive. While this is partly true, the ban was meant to wipe out the cultural and religious identity of the vanquished Indian tribes. In Canada, the Sun Dance was outlawed in 1895 and the prohibition was only lifted it in 1950. In the United States, the ban was in place until the 1970s.

Because of the ban, this tradition almost became extinct. As a matter of fact, the Indians had to relearn it in the 1930s.

Since it became legal again, there have been many efforts by different Plains Indian tribes to preserve the Sun Dance. And there have also been moves to ban non-Indians from watching the ceremony. Spectators can join the community camped around the area of the dance but they cannot approach the altar.

Although it has its origins among the Great Plains Indians, other Indian tribes have also adopted the dance as a form of community prayer for life, thanksgiving, world renewal. The individual dancers have their own intentions for dancing though, like praying for a friend or a family member or praying for guidance.

Central to the Sun Dance is the belief that the planet will lose its connection to the Universe if the dance is not performed every year, thereby affecting Earth’s ability to regenerate itself.

The Sun Dance is only one of thirteen dances that are traditionally performed by the Indian tribes. Preparation for it is very detailed. It involves making a lodge from a cottonwood tree. The tree chosen must be large and have a forked branch in the middle. Twelve poles are then placed upright around a central pole in a circular manner. The poles are set 13 paces away from the central pole. From an aerial view, it would like a wagon wheel with a central hub.

The dance lasts for three to four days. During this time, tribe members dance to the beat of a drum. They fast for the duration of the dance. The result is brutal as many dancers collapse but this collapse is followed by a vision. It is said that the collapsed dancers share a similar vision, thus giving group guidance for the good of the tribe.

The Two Most Lopsided Battles In American History

American history is an extensive one, and its battles are often highlighted by experts.

However, there are a few battles which continue to be spoken as some of the most lopsided ones in recent history.

Here is a look at the two most lopsided battles in American history and why those results occurred as they did.

1) The Battle of 73 Easting

This one took place in 1991 during the month of February, and it was one-sided.

It took place between the American-British alliance and an Iraqi Republican Guard.

It was one of the last tank battles that took place in the 20th century and was short-lived, to say the least.

The American-British alliance had a good unit of 10,000 men that were going in tanks.

In the end, it didn’t take much effort at all because a mere group of 400 American/British soldiers was able to handle a force of 3000-4000 soldiers from the other side. The mission was accomplished, and they were able to get the job done in a few hours. It was one of the more lopsided battles in the history of American battles.

2) Battle of Yorktown

This took place in the late 1700s where the British were looking to take over a set part of America. Lord Charles Cornwallis was behind this battle as he was looking to cut off the supply in Virginia.

Washington and his allies were able to dominate over Lord Charles Cornwallis and his men.

This ensured the siege didn’t work.

The British had to surrender, and a deal was made to negotiate peace. However, for the British, this was just a small bit of damage compared to a number of outposts they lost as a result of their actions.

Here are the most lopsided battles in American history.

Who Was Sitting Bull?

Do you ever wonder who Sitting Bull really was? Has anyone ever asked you? You might have heard the name in history class or from a television show, film, or youtube video. If you’re wondering, then keep reading to learn just who Sitting Bull was.

Sitting Bull’s specific date of birth is unknown, but assumed to have been in the year 1831. Though we don’t know exactly when he was born, we know he died on December 15th, 1890.

He was a holy man of the Hunkpapa Lakota Native Americans. Much of his adult life centered around resisting the policies of the United States government and sometimes even the government itself. Indian agency police who feared he might join forces with the Ghost Dance movement sought to arrest him on the Standing Rock Indian reservation. When they tried to arrest him, he attempted to escape and was killed in the process.

Prior to the Battle of the Little Bighorn, also known as “Custer’s Last Stand,” legend has it that Sitting Bull experienced a vision. In it, he witnessed a lot of soldiers, which he described to be ‘as thick as grasshoppers,’ falling into a Lakota camp upside down. His people took this vision as foreshadowing, predicting a significant victory where many of those soldiers would perish.

Not even a month after this vision, a combination of Northern Cheyenne and confederated Lakota tribes gained victory over the 7th Cavalry that was under the command of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer. On June 25, 1876, they destroyed the battalion and seemingly fulfilled the prophetic vision of Sitting Bull. His leadership inspired those around him to a huge victory.

Some months following the battle and subsequent victory, Sitting Bull and his followers crossed the international border into Canada, departing for the Wood Mountain of the North-West Territories (modern-day Saskatchewan). He remained there until 1881. The depletion of buffalo populations that far north, combined with conflict and tensions with Native Americans already in the area, convinced him and most of his band to return to the United States where they surrendered to the United States authorities.

Sitting Bull actually worked for a while as a performer in the famous Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, but wound up returning with many of his band to the Standing Rock Agency located in modern South Dakota. At the time, the American government was fearful that the growing Ghost Dance movement might mean a new round of conflict with Native Americans, and there was strong suspicion that Sitting Bull might use his influence from two previous conflicts to support the growing Ghost Dance movement. James McLaughlin was an Indian Service agent stationed at Fort Yates that ordered the arrest of Sitting Bull. A struggle ensued between agency police and the followers of Sitting Bull, who suffered gunshots to the head and side of his body, both of which were fired by Standing Rock policemen Red Tomahawk and Lieutenant Bull Head. This happened after they were fired upon themselves by supporters of Sitting Bull.

The body of Sitting Bull was buried at Fort Yates until 1953, at which point his Lakota descendants exhumed what was thought to be his individual remains. They reburied them near his birthplace outside of Mobridge, South Dakota.

While Sitting Bull never became an influence or factor in the Ghost Dance movement, he was heavily involved in two periods of actual violence between Plains Indians and the United States. Before participating in the Great Sioux War of 1876, which included the vision and victory over Custer and his forces, Sitting Bull was very actively involved in the larger Red Cloud’s War of a decade earlier. Even after Red Cloud himself signed a treaty of peace, Sitting Bull continued to lead Lakota raids against forts and settlements for years.

Did the United States Support The Great Sioux War?

In the year 1876, there were a series of wars referred to as The Great Sioux War and the Black Hills War. These battles entailed negotiations wherein the Lakota Sioux, as well as the Northern Cheyenne and the United States Government, argued over who was the owner of the Black Hills.  

Once gold was found in the Black Hills, the United States government began their quest to take it away from the Native American’s and claim it as their own. This caused a huge battle between the Native Americans, the settlers and the United States Government.

The Native American’s, both Sioux and Cheyenne, flat out refused to cede the ownership of the Black Hills and the military centered around the epicenter of the argument. Many Indians believed that the Cheyenne were the intended target of the argument however, it was clear that the American and the United States government were certain that the Black Hills should be in their ownership.

There were many battles and skirmishes that include the Battle of Little Bighorn which is also referred to as Custer’s Last Stand. The Army and the Plain Indians were in a war as to who would own the land. Ulysses S. Grant was president and they finally came to an agreement and annexed some of the Sioux lands and established Indian reservations that were to be permanent.

Meanwhile, the Cheyenne migrated west toward the Black Hills and the Powder River area before the Lakota. They introduced them to horses in around 1730 and by the late part of the 18th century, they were expanding their personal territory west of the Missouri River. Here, they would push the Kiowa and form alliances with both the Cheyenne and the Arapaho in an effort to gain control of the Black Hills which are located in South Dakota. They also wanted the lodgepole pines that would be sacred to the Lakota culture.

By the 19th century, Northern Cheyenne were the first to wage a tribal war and argue that the military may have overstepped their bounds. The Cheyenne were a major force in the warfare on the Plains.

There were many miners and many settlers who encroached into the Dakota Territory. The government couldn’t’ keep them out and by the year 1872, the territorial officials were even considering harvesting the timber resources in the Black Hills and floating them downriver for sale.

The geological survey’s also recommended that there was a huge potential for mineral resources and they were approached regarding getting the Lakota to sign away the Black Hills. Since this was the only area of the reservation worth anything, the army found that the only way there would regain the Black Hills was to annihilate them.

Custer was dispatched in 1874 to begin this process and the rest is history. As violators trickled into the Black Hills in search of gold, they gained momentum and invaded the hills before the gold rush would end.

Originally, the U.S. Army attempted to keep the miners out of the area, however, the miners managed to evade the army and take over. There were a few evictions but not enough to make a major difference.

Lakota leaders refused to sign the treaty that was offered and move to present-day Oklahoma, and told them that if they thought the region was so great, they should send the white men to the region.
While the attempt was unsuccessful, the leaders didn’t join in with chief Crazy Horse to have a peaceful solution. The government attempt again failed. The army carried out many devastating attacks on the Cheyenne camps during this time.

For more information on this subject, check out the video below: