The Great Importance of The Battle of Rosebud Creek, 1876

The Great Sioux War of 1876 was short, but it was destined to provide a bitter aftertaste to Native American and U.S. relations for decades to come. Even after the war was ended, skirmishes broke out for years. The conflict itself was less of a war set between two massive forces, and more of a long-lasting series of short engagements between adversaries competing for control over lands that had previously been held by the Native American tribes.

Although the war would eventually be won by the United States military, the Native American tribes would fight to the bitter end and held their own throughout the contest. During one such engagement, called the Battle of Rosebud Creek, the Sioux and Cheyenne would rally their forces to a miraculous win in the face of what were likely superior numbers and a better-armed force of trained U.S. soldiers.

Were it not for the persistence of younger tribe members, this victory–and subsequent ones–may never have come to pass. The Sioux and Cheyenne chiefs had a policy by which they would neither seek out nor engage the U.S. forces preemptively. Instead, they would muster their fighters and prepare for battles that might take place at a moment’s notice. Were a surprise attack to occur, then, they were ready.

Younger members of both tribes disagreed, and actively disobeyed the wishes of their chiefs. They periodically stole horses and other supplies from the U.S. army and shuttled important information about enemy position and movement back to their tribes.

This was why policy shifted toward more aggressive action on the part of the Native Americans. When those young warriors learned of the likelihood of a surprise attack on their village, they were able to use that knowledge to convince their respective tribe chiefs to launch an attack of their own.

On June 17, 1876, the two tribes successfully halted the advance of the U.S. army at the Battle of Rosebud Creek. Even though the battle would hardly be decisive, it would temporarily shift the outcome in crucial battles during the coming weeks.

General George Crook, who was in charge of the U.S. military might that day, would claim he had won. Historians dismiss his odd claim for an obvious reason. He commanded around a thousand troops during the six hour engagement and, while fewer of his men were killed or wounded than those on the opposing side, he was compelled to retreat so his force could seek required medical care and nourishment.

Meanwhile, the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors were provided a brief period of respite before another attack could be mounted against them. During this time, a fighting force of nearly two thousand warriors gathered to defend the region from further encroachment. The reinforcements paved the way for Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer’s blunder at the Battle of Little Bighorn only a week later on June 25. Although Custer made tactical error after tactical error, effectively giving up every strategic advantage held, his defeat–and the slaughter of he and his men–was made possible by the Native American victory at the Battle of Rosebud Creek.

Were Weapons A Deciding Factor During The Great Sioux War?

Most people have a nationalistic sense of pride, especially those living in Missouri, and that’s why history has taught us that Europeans who swept into North America wiped out the Native Americans with superior technology and greater firepower. Unfortunately, you can’t exaggerate reality. Native Americans were mostly wiped out by disease inadvertently transferred from European settlers, and that easily paved the way for most of the expansion that occurred during the early centuries of colonization–so much more so than technology could.

In later centuries, the Native American tribes became more fragmented as a result of the widespread death that had already ravaged their way of life. This affected the path to expansion during events like the Black Hills Expedition led by Custer.

When the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 was broken by the U.S. government, the resulting conflict called the Great Sioux War lasted only a short while from 1876 to 1877, although skirmishes lasted for years afterward. It may have lasted longer or cost the American settlers and army a lot more, but the fragmentation within the Sioux Nation resulted in different factions–some who fought, and others who openly embraced peace.

Although the Sioux who chose to fight believed in their cause and knew the lay of the land, they held no advantage in numbers. At this point in time, the difference in weaponry might not be what most people would expect. While most records suggest that the Native Americans were still using traditional bow and arrow during most engagements, we also know that a plethora of firearms was in use as well. Arms used by the Sioux in some battles–such as the famed Battle of Little Bighorn–may have even been superior to those used by the U.S. military.

The soldiers of the U.S. army were equipped with .45 caliber, single-action revolvers. For long range, they used the 1873 Springfield Model rifle–widely believed to grant them superior range over their Sioux adversaries.

This may have been true some of the time, but perhaps not always. The Battle of Little Bighorn took place only a year before the Great Sioux War broke out, and archaeological excavations during the 1980s managed to rip 2,361 cartridges from the dirt. These came from 45 different kinds of firearms, confirming the idea that the Native Americans were using them too. It also proves that members of the U.S. army often carried their own weapons.

Survivors of the battle claimed that the Native Americans who slaughtered the rest of the 7th Cavalry that day were armed with repeating rifles, Winchesters in particular. This provided the Native Americans with a tremendous advantage in firepower, while superior numbers and the utter stupidity of Custer certainly helped win them the day.

During most battles of the Great Sioux War, though, it seems likely that weaponry was probably on par to that used by the U.S. military. We can’t hope to hold accounts during the period in high regard, so it’s impossible to be 100 percent accurate.

It seems that the Great Sioux War was lost to the U.S. army because it seemed a cause not worth fighting anymore, as the American expansion then seemed inexorable. The wave was coming to swallow their way of life, and no one could hope to stop it. This was the reason why memorable figures of the time period such as Sioux Chief Spotted Tail chose to help white men pursue peace rather than war. Weapons used during the war probably had little to do with the outcome.

The Lasting Legacy of Sioux Chief Spotted Tail

Those involved in the clash between American and Native American would come to achieve historical immortality in the years following the Sioux War. One of the most famous faces from this time period is a Sioux chief who was called Spotted Tail, a name granted after he was gifted with a racoon. Born around 1823, he grew up in what is today South Dakota. We don’t know where exactly, but we do know that later in life he played a major role in relations between the U.S. and Native Americans while living in the Black Hills region of South Dakota.

Spotted Tail was well known for his unflappable sense of duty and honor to his people, and even the U.S. government occupying the Black Hills region at Fort Laramie would come to respect the man. When he and two other members of his tribe were accused of murder, they surrendered themselves to the authorities at Fort Laramie. It was during this time that Spotted Tail became literate in English. He was released from custody around the same time that the previous Sioux chief passed away, and he was promptly chosen as successor.

He was one of those present during the signing of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which granted the Sioux Nation permanent lands in the form of a reservation in the Black Hills region.

Spotted Tail was a major factor in how this treaty was written, because it replaced what would have been an entirely different treaty three years prior. Spotted Tail and other chiefs were proficient in the art of negotiation, and they knew they could do better than what the 1865 treaty would have provided. As a result, the reservation granted from the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 gave them land that included almost all of South Dakota–more than enough to fulfill their needs as a tribe and allow them to continue their way of life for an indefinite period of time.

Spotted Tail remained an active force for his people in the years to come. Gold was discovered in the Black Hills region, and Spotted Tail quickly acted to appraise the value of the mine in question before running to Washington in order to sell the right to mine to Black Hills settlers. This negotiating tactic failed, and his offer of sale was denied by the U.S. government. Settlers continued to flood the region and tensions skyrocketed.

The terms of the treaty they had worked tirelessly toward would eventually be discarded because of that same greed. Conflict between the Sioux Nation and the U.S. military was inevitable.

“This war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land from us without price.”

Those words were spoken by Spotted Tail after the Great Sioux War broke out in 1876. Even so, the man still believed that peace was in the best interest of his people–and he worked to that end. He traveled along the Black Hills in order to spur the remaining Sioux back to reservation territory in a bid to end the hostilities once and for all, and found some success in his endeavor. Even though skirmishes continued for years, the war ended only a year after it began.
Spotted Tail was assassinated by a rival sub-chief in 1881, and in a decision somewhat unusual for the U.S. court system at the time, his murderer was released. The court ruled that it had no authority over the reservation, and therefore could not try a crime committed there.

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 and its Legacy

When we study the Native American tribes we must acknowledge that their customs and traditions, lands, etc.–their very way of life–had persisted for millennia before settlers ever sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to colonize the continent. Most Native Americans viewed the land as a source of abundance for all to share, and few of them understood the concept of ownership until Europeans taught them. Those settlers, purposeful or not, infringed on everything the Native American tribes knew and respected. As you can see here, it was for this reason they sought to preserve what little they had left centuries later, when Americans began a mad push for expansion in the late 1800s.

That purpose was really all they fought for, and it was to be a fight in vain.

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, sometimes also called the Sioux Treaty, was drafted between the Sioux Nation and the United States government. The treaty set aside lands for the Sioux–called reservations–in the Black Hills region of South Dakota. The treaty was abundantly clear in its promise to the Sioux Nation: the lands were theirs, and would be used by and for no one else.

The treaty was conceived after a period of study conducted by a congressional committee in 1865. This “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes” was made available in 1867, and made recommendations on how the United States might avoid future conflicts with the Native Americans after nearly a decade of violent skirmishes. What it really did was suggest that the U.S. government offer a rather sharp compromise: in return for giving up the vast majority of their sacred lands, the Sioux and other Native American tribes could at least hold on to a small portion of what was already under their control.

In order to maintain their way of life and try to avoid further conflict, many of the tribes acquiesced. So, too, was the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 forged under the same promise.

Although these treaties paved the way for the expansion that made the United States the massive economic and military behemoth it remains today, the treaties and preceding violence are still acknowledged as some of the most shameful acts committed by the still young, nearly century old country. Sadly, the worst was yet to come.

Not even a decade later, the Black Hills Expedition effectively nullified the treaty in 1874. It sought to find new avenues to and from the region, implant a firm military stronghold, and mine for gold if there was any to be had. When Americans got word of the expedition, they surged into the area in droves in order to strike it rich on their own. This was illegal under the Fort Laramie Treaty, but the U.S. government quickly halted its initial policy of evicting civilians who ventured there for fortune.

The Sioux Nation recognized that the treaty was no longer upheld by the U.S. government and, when the U.S. military began to protect civilians coming into the Black Hills region, all hell broke loose. Skirmishes between both sides lasted for years to come. Most notable of all was the moment when Custer–the leader of the Black Hills Expedition–and hundreds of his men were slaughtered at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876.

Sadly, ownership of the region is under legal dispute between the remaining Sioux and the U.S. government.

For more information feel free to watch this informative video:

The Black Hills Expedition and its Impact on Native American Relations

The Black Hills Expedition set out on July 2, 1874, led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, and may well have been the catalyst for a chain of events that inevitably led to the slaughter of Custer and nearly 300 of his men during the Great Sioux War of 1876–a defeat that would go down in history and make a national hero out of the man (although not forever). How did the expedition get going, what was its purpose, and what was its impact on the Great Sioux War?

When the expedition first set out, the Black Hills region of South Dakota was still a great unknown in the ever-growing America, and remained uncharted. The United States Army was looking for ways of expanding its strategic arm in the region at the time, and founded the expedition as a means of doing that. It’s purpose was simple: scout the region to find a good tactical vantage point from which they could build a fort, discover and map new routes to the southwest and, if possible, locate areas where gold ore veins could be mined.

Although these endeavors were each somewhat successful, the results were disastrous.

It is not technically accurate to say the Black Hills Expedition found much of what they looked for–that is, gold. Accounts vary wildly, and we really just don’t know with any degree of certainty that they found any large quantity. What we do know from records at the time is that civilians were looking for gold while Custer’s men worked on the project of finding a location to build their fort upon. Therein lies the problem: civilians were looking for gold. They weren’t part of any organized military operation, and therefore word inevitably got out that the expedition was on the hunt for gold, perhaps even having found some.

Consequently, there was a massive rush to the region as people looked to strike it rich.

It didn’t happen immediately, but it didn’t take long either. The United States government initially had a policy to remove trespassers from the area but, as tensions with the Indians in the region rose, the policy was abandoned. President Grant put an end to diplomatic proceedings with the Sioux and other tribes inhabiting the region, and began an overtly aggressive approach that sought to subjugate Native Americans living in the Black Hills region. The ultimate goal was their removal.

Treaties had previously been formed with the Sioux Indians, guaranteeing that their sacred lands would forever remain out of reach for non-native peoples currently living in other regions to the east. When masses of people began to migrate into the Black Hills region, the Sioux felt that the United States government had reneged on its end of the deal, betraying a promise that had been given.

The Sioux were right.

The Lakota and Sioux tribes were soon “ordered” to return to their reservations by early 1876–even though winter weather prohibited travel. They were told that military action would be taken if they stayed beyond the deadline given. Since leaving was impossible, the United States followed through with its threat.

This was the beginning of what would come to be known as the Great Sioux War, also sometimes called the Black Hills War, that would last until 1877–although conflicts would extend for many more years. Although it had many lasting ramifications, Custer’s defeat is still the best known among them.

Who Was Crazy Horse And What Did He Do?

One of the most recognizable names when people talk about American Indians is an individual by the name of Crazy Horse. He was actually a leader in a tribe called the Oglala Lakota. He is known for being very diverse in his actions, especially when it came to opposing the federal government of the United States. He was a very brave individual that later surrendered to the Americans and was subdued by a wound caused by a bayonet. Here is a little overview of what Crazy Horse actually did during his life and why he is so famous.

Early Life Of Crazy Horse

Crazy Horse was born in the 1800s. There is some debate on that exact date. Many people agree that it was around 1842. A medicine man, which is a spiritual leader within tribes of the American Indians, played a role in his famous name. Born during a year where 100 horses were stolen, he was designated with this name. However, his birth name was Cha-O-Ha, which simply means he who is amidst the trees.

The Family Of Crazy Horse

His father was also called Crazy Horse, a name that he gave to his son. His father changed his name to a word that means worm. His mother died early when he was just four years of age. Her name was Rattling Blanket Woman. His relationship with his father was strong, and they decided to go on a vision quest to discover what he was to do with his life.

The Visions Of Crazy Horse

What is well-known in the culture of American Indians is that they were often guided by their visions. Crazy Horse lived with his younger brother at a Lakota camp where American soldiers came in looking for a thief and were subsequently slaughtered. Crazy Horse, also called Curly by his mother, went on a vision quest with his father, going all the way to Sylvan Lake in South Dakota. This is something that was discussed by his cousin Black Elk who was also known for his visions. He went on a vision quest where he first went south, a reference to where the departed souls and up after death. In the vision, he was shown how to do his warpaint, mimicking a lightning bolt on the left side of his face that his father also wore. The vision was interpreted to show that he would become a great warrior, and that is actually what he became, a protector of his people.

Last Sun Dance Of 1877

This is an event that is still highly regarded in Lakota history. It was a dance that was held in honor of Crazy Horse. He had played a vital role in the victory of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Although he was the honored guest, he did not participate in the festivities. There were cousins that attended who actually sacrificed flesh and blood in his name. However, despite all of this, it led to deep suspicions about Crazy Horse from the American perspective which led to his eventual demise.

At the end of his life, he formally surrendered to Lieut. Clark at Fort Robinson in Nebraska. This subsequently led to misinterpretations of words that he had said which led them to believe that he still wanted to kill the Americans. There was a struggle at one point where he was stabbed by a bayonet, and despite the efforts of an assistant post surgeon, he died from the wounds. However, he left behind a legacy and legend that still lives today in the stories that are told about Crazy Horse.

For more information about Crazy Horse, check out this video:


Who Was George Armstrong Custer?

There is an individual in American history that is well-known by the name of General George Armstrong Custer. He is well known for one of the most famous battles in history between Americans and American Indians called the Battle of Little Bighorn. Although he did participate in the American Civil War, he is most well-known for his participation in the American Indian Wars. Here is a quick overview of the life of George Armstrong Custer, and the day of his famous death known as “Custer’s Last Stand.”

Early Life Of George Armstrong Custer

George Armstrong Custer was born in 1839. He was raised in the states of Ohio and Michigan. Although he was allowed into West Point back in 1857, when he graduated he was the last in his class. However, it was due to the outbreak of the Civil War that he found his calling. He developed a very strong reputation during this war. He was engaged in battle at First Battle of Bull Run, and he became a very successful Calgary commander. And only the age of 23, he became a Brig. Gen. right before the Battle of Gettysburg. However, it was his occupation in the battlefield during the American Indian Wars that cemented his role in American history.

General Custer And The American Indian Wars

After going back to the rank of captain, and subsequently appointed to Lieut. Col., he fought in the American Indian Wars starting in 1867. Nine years later in 1876, he led the seventh Cavalry Regiment into Montana where he would fights, and also died, in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. It is there that he and his brothers were killed in an epic battle with a coalition of different Native Americans. It is forever known as Custer’s Last Stand, and despite all of his success in the Civil War, this is what he will forever be known for in history.

Custer’s Last Stand

The reason that this battle is so well remembered is because of how decisive it was. Fighting against American Indians, they were surrounded, and ultimately all of the soldiers were killed. The Indians worked strategically, killing soldiers, taking their guns, and continuing to fire at the troopers that remained. Slowly the American gunfire diminished, and the gunfire from the American Indians grew more intense until not a single man was left standing.

Conflicting Stories Regarding Custer’s Last Stand

When the bodies were examined, aside from the wounds that led to mutilation, there was a definitive shot to the left temple and also right below the heart. There was also some confusion as to where his body was found. Some stated that he was also knocked from his horse, and that led to his demise, but either way this was certainly his last battle. Although none of the American Indians that were interviewed actually knew that this was the famous General Custer, what they are remembered for is their ability to effectively shut down an entire American Cavalry unit. After observing the body.

Despite having a stellar reputation as a leader in the American Civil War, it was his interaction in the American Indian Wars that has made him so famous. Although he is famous for all of the wrong reasons, actually losing his battle, it was the decisiveness of that battle which also contributed to his notoriety. There were many other battles that were fought during this time, yet there is none that is more well-known than this one. George Armstrong Custer will forever be known as the individual that represents what all of the American history refer to as Custer’s Last Stand.

The History of The Great Sioux War

The Great Sioux War of 1876 is also known to many historians as the Black Hill  War. It was a series of both negotiations and battles that collectively took place in 1876 and 1877. These events transpired between the government of the United States and the Northern Cheyenne and Lakota Sioux.

The primary cause of the dispute stemmed from the United States government desiring ownership over the Black Hills. There had been a discovery of gold there, and settlers were encroaching into what were at the time Native American lands. The Cheyenne and Sioux refused to cede their ownership of their lands to the United States.

Traditional interpretation of the events by many historians and United States military scholars put an emphasis on the Lakota as a central player in this story, particularly given the numbers they had involved. However, some of the Native American populace hold the belief that the United States campaign was targeted at the Cheyenne.

Many skirmishes and battles took place during this war. The Battle of the Little Bighorn was perhaps the most famous, alternatively known popularly as “Custer’s Last Stand,” as it is easily the most storied of multiple encounters between Plains Indians and the United States army. Even though Indian forces won that particular incident, the United States was able to capitalize on its access to national resources.

The Battle of the Little Bighorn was a decided loss, and it was preceded by the Battle of the Rosebud. That early event is widely considered to be the first notable violence of the war; it was at least a tactical draw, but perhaps a strategic victory for the Indians. Both were followed by the Battle of Slim Buttes, which was a minor victory. Following the mixed results, the Army changed tactics and started bringing in many more troops and commanding officers, one of whom wound up commanding the whole Army during the United States-Spanish War.

The Indians involved were eventually forced into surrender. This happened mainly due to attacks that destroyed their property and encampments and caused great injury to their soldiers. Two presidents were in office during the Great Sioux War. The first was Ulysses S. Grant, and the second was Rutherford B. Hayes. On February 28, 1877, the Agreement of 1877 was formally enacted. It established permanent Indian reservations and annexed Sioux lands.

Military campaigns were not the only efforts to bring a resolution to the conflict. After Custer fell, Congress passed a ‘sell or starve’ rider that terminated Sioux rations until they ceased hostilities and gave the Black Hills to America. Also, a delegation including Northern Cheyenne and Oglala men went to various encampments in January of 1877 to see if any bands were interested in surrendering. Other Indian agencies sent out similar peace delegations in the following February, March, and April.

The combination of military campaigns and intense diplomacy yielded effective results. Starting in the early spring months of 1877, many of the northern bands started to surrender en masse. This was not without incident, though. The famous Oglala leader known as Crazy Horse was feared by the Army as someone who might break away. An attempt to arrest him lead to a struggle that ended in his death. Also, some bands simply fled into Canada. However, buffalo depletion and tensions with native tribes already in Canada lead most of these bands to return and surrender in the early 1880s.

The Great Sioux War of 1876-77 is often contrasted with the previous Red Cloud’s War of roughly ten years earlier. In that conflict, the leaders of the Lakota were heavily supported by their various bands in terms of fighting. However, between the two wars, over half of the Lakota population had chosen to settle at various Indian agencies. They did this to gain subsistence and rations, and these bands neither supported nor participated in the Great Sioux War.

For more information on The Great Sioux War and other Sioux wars, check out this video:

Common War Injuries During The 1800s

Whereas the modern battlefield is marked by high explosives, whether manufactured in an industrialized factory or crudely built out of whatever is at hand, a mere century and a half ago, the most common war injury in the 1800s was bullet wounds. However, the nineteenth century was a major historical development period in the history of firearms, as well as a major period in the development of battlefield surgery, both of which would prove pivotal in the history of that century’s battlefields.

The 1800s started off with the then advanced musket rifle as a standard battlefield weapon. Though these rifles were fast evolving for the time (particularly since the Napoleonic wars and the beginning of modern colonialism made improvements in firearm technology a very in demand feat of engineering), these devices were still quite simple. They fired a small ball of lead, slow-moving by today’s standards, but still more than fast enough to shred flesh and shatter bone.

Later advancements in the century saw the birth repeating firearms that fired more bullets in less time than ever before, though the speed these bullets flew at and the rate at which they were still slow compared to today’s guns. Still, it was more than fast enough to create an upsurge in the number of war injuries and casualties of the wars of the era.

Explosion injuries, typically those of the cannons of the era, were common as well, but the bulk of war injuries of the era came from bullet wounds of faster and more powerful firearms. For those soldiers who didn’t die of their bullet injuries, treatments of the day were risky. Amputation was common, though it is unfair to describe the surgeons of the era as butchers. It was the best they had and many injured soldiers who survived the initial survived what would have been fatal a century earlier.

What Is The Sun Dance Gathering Of The Native Americans?

The Sun Dance is a religious ceremony practiced by Indian tribes that lived in the so-called Great Plains of the United States and Canada, that is, from the grassland that spans the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, and from Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada through Texas in the United States.

For the Great Plains Indians, the Sun Dance ceremony is the most important religious event of the year and serves as an occasion for different groups to gather to celebrate their central beliefs about the Universe and the supernatural. Plans are made one year in advance, and the event is held either in late spring or early summer when herds of buffalo gather in the Great Plains after winter. In other words, it is held during the time when large groups of people have access to plentiful sources of food.

During the ceremony, a select group of men dancers for several days around a central pole for days, only stopping for short breaks. It is a test of physical endurance that the dancers are willing to make for the sake of their tribe. Aside from fasting for a few days during the dance, the dancers are fastened to the central pole through a piercing on their chests.

It is said that one of the reasons why the US and Canadian governments banned the Sun Dance was because of the piercing, which settlers from Europe found offensive. While this is partly true, the ban was meant to wipe out the cultural and religious identity of the vanquished Indian tribes. In Canada, the Sun Dance was outlawed in 1895 and the prohibition was only lifted it in 1950. In the United States, the ban was in place until the 1970s.

Because of the ban, this tradition almost became extinct. As a matter of fact, the Indians had to relearn it in the 1930s.

Since it became legal again, there have been many efforts by different Plains Indian tribes to preserve the Sun Dance. And there have also been moves to ban non-Indians from watching the ceremony. Spectators can join the community camped around the area of the dance but they cannot approach the altar.

Although it has its origins among the Great Plains Indians, other Indian tribes have also adopted the dance as a form of community prayer for life, thanksgiving, world renewal. The individual dancers have their own intentions for dancing though, like praying for a friend or a family member or praying for guidance.

Central to the Sun Dance is the belief that the planet will lose its connection to the Universe if the dance is not performed every year, thereby affecting Earth’s ability to regenerate itself.

The Sun Dance is only one of thirteen dances that are traditionally performed by the Indian tribes. Preparation for it is very detailed. It involves making a lodge from a cottonwood tree. The tree chosen must be large and have a forked branch in the middle. Twelve poles are then placed upright around a central pole in a circular manner. The poles are set 13 paces away from the central pole. From an aerial view, it would like a wagon wheel with a central hub.

The dance lasts for three to four days. During this time, tribe members dance to the beat of a drum. They fast for the duration of the dance. The result is brutal as many dancers collapse but this collapse is followed by a vision. It is said that the collapsed dancers share a similar vision, thus giving group guidance for the good of the tribe.